Wednesday, September 19, 2012

TRIBAL (FACIAL AND BODILY) MARKS IN AFRICAN CULTURE

                       Girl from a Umm Bororo tribe.
They are nomads with cattles,by origin from countries in Western Africa.
They are divided to many main branches and every branch have a different marks("Shluh")on their faces..She has also unique black tatoo on her lips...
Taken in Eastern Sudan,close to Ethiopia                            

As a matter of fact I take strong exception to the marks on African indigenes as "Scarification." It was is the Westerners way of undermining everything African and making it look ugly and an un-civilize practice. Today, in the Western world many people are also piercing their bodily parts (including tongue, lips, navel, clitoris, penis, breast, eyebrows et al) and inserting it with various rings as a sign of high class culture and they turn around to accuse Africans who mark their body for various valid historical, cultural, medical, religious and aesthetic reasons.Deaf / dumb kids etc., were tribal marked for quick identification especially when such need assistance in public.  It is unfortunate that many Africans have also bought into this cultural imperialist propaganda against tribal marks and other marks on the body of an African.
                           Yoruba facial mark (it is known as yensuwa kam "crying mark" in Ghana

In the olden days, when a child is born, the proud father will want the child to be given tribal marks as a way of expressing that he is the legitimate father of the child as well as a way of identifying the child in their family lineage or ethnic group. It is believed that the best way of identifying people of same ethnic group is the similarity of their marks and in that case, they protect their interest.
                                 Bor Dinka tribal mark,South Sudan

Tribal marks which can also be described as facial marks though well dominated in Africa, can be traced to some foreigners who were living in Egypt in the 5th century BC. During that time, a Greek historian, Herodotus wrote about some foreigners living in Egypt who cut their foreheads with knives to differentiate themselves from the Egyptians. This practice was further adopted years later when several kings of various kingdoms in Africa, started invading other kings and their people for land and other resources. The invaders therefore mark themselves as well as their family members to differentiate themselves from the captured kings and their family members whom they now regard as their slaves.

                                                    Yoruba facial mark
This is how Sacred text ( ) describes the history of Tribal marks in Yoruba myth: "HOW TRIBAL MARKS CAME TO BE USED

A CERTAIN King named Sango sent two slaves to a distant country on an important mission.

 In due course they returned, and he found that one slave had achieved successfully what he had been sent to do, while the other had accomplished nothing. The p. 3 King therefore rewarded the first with high honours, and commanded the second to receive a hundred and twenty-two razor cuts all over his body.

 This was a severe punishment, but when the scars healed, they gave to the slave a very remarkable appearance, which greatly took the fancy of the King’s wives.
           Yoruba tribal facial mark chart

 Sango therefore decided that cuts should in future be given, not as punishment, but as a sign of royalty, and he placed himself at once in the hands of the markers. However, he could only bear two cuts, and so from that day two cuts on the arm have been the sign of royalty, and various other cuts came to be the marks of different tribes."

WHY TRIBAL MARKS AND BODILY MARKS (SCARIFICATIONS)

1. IDENTIFICATION OF FAMILY, TRIBE

                              Woman from the Nuer tribe, located in South Sudan and western Ethiopia.

It is a way of identification passed down from family to family, members of the same village, identification of royal lineage and people from the same lineage. But different sets of people have similar tribal marks that differentiate them from people from a different lineage or village. Since tribal marks are used mainly to differentiate ethnic groups, they vary. There are marks are on the cheeks, forehead, on the temple, under the chin and so on. There are vertical lines, horizontal, both vertical and horizontal, slanted lines on both cheeks. These marks are in patterns based on the ethnic group of their bearer and have different meanings and different names. The Yorubas for example, have different pattern of marks and names for them like ture, bamu, keke, gombo, abaja, pele etc.
                             Funke,Yoruba (single vertical mark)


                        Yoruba woman (single horizontal marks)
 The Hausas also have names for tribal marks like zube, yan baka, doddori, bille and so on. The well known Fulani marking is the kalangu. Tribal marks are not well associated with the Igbos, only a very few of them have marks which in most cases are on their temple.

                                   Hausa tribal mark
In northern and upper west region of Ghana many individuals living there migrated from the Burkina Faso and retain their specific marks (Bakarewie).
Making also allow groups living within close proximity to one another to able to differentiate between themselves, as there are often unwritten rules that forbids those of the same clans or tribes to inter-marry one another.
                                    Miss Binki Mama, Karrayyu girl, Ethiopia

2.. RELIGIOUS AND SPIRITUAL PROTECTION PURPOSES


Though, markings are done on the face mostly for the purpose of ethnic identification, not all marks on the face are for the purpose of identifying an individual as belonging to a particular ethnic group. There are other reasons for facial markings; some are associated with spiritual or religious practices. In some Yoruba settings, children born as still = birth or a "reincarnated child" which is called abiku, a child believed to have been born twice or thrice are given marks on their face and body for several reasons. It is believed that to take away the spiritual powers of the child, he has to be identified by the marks when he/she is given birth to again and to stop the death of the child at a tender age. It can also be used to wade away evil spirits ravaging around a certain group of people or family. In this case, the marks are not only on the face but other parts of the body as well.
In Ghana among most tribes reincarnated child mark known in Yoruba abiku are referred to as "Kosanma"  and the marks on the face are known as "Kosanma" or "Donko" marks. The belief for making these marks are the same as in Yoruba belief explained above.
   Mr E T Mensah, Ghana`s minister of Employment with his Kosanma or Donko tribal marks on his cheeks

Most tribes in Africa give marks to their people for spiritual protection against evil spirit,another person who want to do them harm or bad luck in their life. Among Ghanaians and other Africans fetish priests, Shamans or herbalists are the ones who prescribe these marks. They cut the body and powerful herbs with spiritual potency are inserted in to heal with the body for the future protection against evil. The cuts are made on the hips,wrists,stomach or shoulders.

3. MEDICAL PURPOSES

               Ghanaian student with convulsion mark

Apart from spiritual and religious purposes, facial marks are given to certain people for the treatment of illness especially children. In this case, traditional healers do incisions on the children's face or body to treat them for ailments like convulsion, pneumonia and measles.
The medical marks can be made on any part of the body where the ailment afflicts that person. These marks are usually very small and some are very difficult to spot.

4. AESTHETIC/BEAUTIFICATION PURPOSES

                                Datoga tribe women of Tanzania

Some people belong to a certain tribes that don't encourage tribal marks but admire certain patterns thus, these can decide to have their faces marked and in this case, it is for beautification and not identification.

                              Typical Ghanaian Fante tribal mark of beautification

Tribal marks are mostly given to people at a very young age most especially when they are babies. This is because at that age, the child doesn't have a say on decisions to giving him/her tribal marks. The people who make these marks use either razor blades or sharp knives to cut the face and they have native dye, pigmentation or black paste usually from grinded charcoal dust which is put into the open wound to stain the marks, stop the bleeding and to make the wound heal fast. It is the black paste applied to the wound that makes the mark permanent and never fade away growing alongside the bearer.
                                                Afar Woman, Ethiopia


                       decorated stomach mark


                                          Sudan dinka girl





                                                      tribal marks Taken in: Nigeria / Jigawa

                               Datoga Tribe woman of Tanzania

                                    Fulani Man, Nigeria



  
                                                    Yoruba mark


                                                Niger woman


                                Fulani woman from Trodi in Niger


                                            Circa 1930 Bilena girl from Eritria on postcard




Woodabe tribal tattoo

Pretty Bodi tribe girl from Ethiopia`s Omo Valley (where the African tribes maintains their traditional African culture devoid of foreign/alien contamination) showing her tribal beautification marks. 

Africa | Tribal scarification on body. Scarification is used as a form of initiation into adulthood, beauty and a sign of a village, tribe, and clan. Natitingou, Benin | © Jean-Michel Clajot, 2006

Africa | Man with tribal scarification on his face and body. Scarification is used as a form of initiation into adulthood, beauty and a sign of a village, tribe, and clan. Natitingou, Benin | © Jean-Michel Clajot
Somba tribe man




Africa | Voodoo festival 2012, Ouidah, Benin | © Luca Gargano.

Fulani girl with facial tattoo


                                           Boy in Cové, Benin (Dietmar Temps' photostream )


                                     A Peul girl with tribal mark


                                  Surma tribe beautification marks


                                 Fon vodoun marks,ouidah,Benin


Girl from Dori region in Burkina Faso


Africa | A man shows the scarifications on his face. Scarification is used as a form of initiation into adulthood, beauty and a sign of a village, tribe, and clan. Natitingou, Benin | © Jean-Michel Clajot





                                               Frafra tribal mark, Northern Ghana


                                                Hamer tribe beautification marks
Africa |  Photo by Benoit Feron

                                             Tribal beautification marks



                                        Toposa girl with scarifications



                                           Nuba tribe beautification marks

Africa | A woman shows the tribal scarification on her face. Scarification is used as a form of initiation into adulthood, beauty and a sign of a village, tribe and clan.  Abomey-Calavi, Benin | © Jean-Michel Clajot
Woman from Abomey-Calavi,Benin

                                                           Fon Tribal mark


                         Dinka tribal mark

Africa | A man shows the scarifications on his face. Scarification is used as a form of initiation into adulthood, beauty and a sign of a village, tribe, and clan. Natitingou, Benin | © Jean-Michel Clajot

Details of the scarification of a Bwaka Woman | © Casimir Zagourski (1880 - 1941)

Africa | Young girl.  Dahomey || Scanned old postcard

Africa | "An intense encounter at Nadoba". Young Tamberma man from Togo with heavy facial scars and an intense look.  | ©John Kenny

Africa | Bakutu woman with scarification. Belgian Congo. ca. 1940s | ©C. Lamote
Bakutu woman with scarification. Belgian Congo. ca. 1940s | ©C. Lamote

Africa | Bas man from Congo with scarification on his torso | Scanned vintage postcard

Africa | Yasayama woman with scarification.  Belgian Congo.  ca. 1940s | ©C. Lamote


Anyuak tribal mark, Sudan

Africa | Fulani girl in Togo | Photographer unknown.
Fulani girl from Togo



Guinea tribal mark

Bamana girl, Mali





Woman with facial marks on her face. facial mark is used as a form of initiation into adulthood, beauty and a sign of a village, tribe, and clan in Cotonou, Benin March 01, 2008.

Africa | Image from the publication "Primitive Worlds; people lost in Time"  National Geographic Society. Hardback, published Jan 1973


Africa | Yasayama woman with scarification. Belgian Congo. ca. 1940s | ©C. Lamote
Yasayama woman with bodily marks. Belgian Congo. ca. 1940s | ©C. Lamote

Africa | "The Quest For Beauty In Dahomey" Vogue December 1967. Photography: Irving Penn | Caption to this image "A Girl Vowed To Her God; Chosen at birth, initiated in the mysteries of a vodun at a convent; a bride of ancestral spirits, her body embossed with the cicatrices of her cult."

Bakutu woman.  Tshuapa, Bodende, Belgian Congo (today, the Democratic Republic of Congo) |  C. Lamote.  ca. 1957
Bakutu woman. Tshuapa, Bodende, Belgian Congo (today, the Democratic Republic of Congo) | C. Lamote. ca. 1957

Mask Chokwe Angola or Democratic Republic of Congo Late 19th-Early 20th century Wood fiber beads and pigment by mharrsch, via Flickr
Mask Chokwe Angola or Democratic Republic of Congo Late 19th-Early 20th century Wood fiber beads and pigment by mharrsch, via Flickr




Nuer tribal mark



                                      Hausa girl with tribal marks-Niger





Two Zulu Maidens in Costume, n.d. [Circa 1910] one with tribal mark on her tummy.  National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

                                                  Dinka beautification mark



                                        Hamer beautification marks


                                         Dinka

                                          Eritrean bilen tribal marks


                       Mursi tribal beautification marks


                 Mursi girl

Nyangatom man with special scarification, which means he has killed a lot of enemies


                             Yoruba tribal marks


                                Dinka


                        Bodi tribe girl with tribal beautification marks


                                     Xhosa initiation beautification marks

 
Abomey Benin

African Scarification,Tattoos and lip plates

                                Girl with traditional hairstyle and tribal mark,Sirigu,Northern Ghana

African Scarification,Tattoos and lip plates

Ethnic scars are forms of culture and art that African peoples have developed. In almost every sixty ethnic groups in Burkina Faso, we find that cultural value appears as an identity card but also a work of art with its meanings and aesthetic values. 
Admittedly scarification allowed to reveal the identity value individual Moaaga. Thus, one could recognize a noble (Nakombga), a commoner (Talga), a Busanga etc.Il must say that time Naba Oubri a Moaaga scarified was saved from slavery, torture and abuses and thus benefited from protection. scarification social importance in Moose Manga Scars allowed social classification dividing society into nobles, princes or slaves depending on the type of scars that you wear. 1. The Marende: These are scars of beauty, elegance which consist in two or three horizontal lines on the forehead. Marende term returns to marense (Sonrhaï origin of dyers) which is a socio-professional category of moose.The relationship with this social stratum was not evident in explanations of tradition bearers Manga. But also the reference to marense is very likely. 2. The wiifu of Nakombga: these are the scars exlusively reserved for princes which consists of two facial scars from the cheek to the chin one right, one left; 3. The lemde or scarification chin is in the form of a cross on the chin 4. The dedendga is a form of scarring that is vertically and horizontally rotate three scars left and right cheeks. All these scars are made ​​by a specialist scarifying.

Africa | Bakutu Women - Belgium Congo | Photographer C. Lamote - Ivy's Albums, ca. 1940

Africa | A warrior with AK-47 scarification marks prepares for battle with a neighboring tribe.  South Sudan, 2012 | ©Trevor Snapp

African Scarification,Tattoos and lip plates



                  Afar woman with tribal beautification marks


Dassanech tribe man with crocodile-like beautification marks





                   



                       Gonja tribal mark-Northern Ghana


Woman from a Umm Bororo tribe wearing traditional clothing.. Umm Bororo are nomads with cattles by origin from Nigeria
...


                                  Fulani tribal mark


             Mursi tribal beautification mark








Kunama woman







Bobo woman from Burkina Faso

Benue state Nigeria



Sango woman, 







Source:http://www.nairaland.com/984651/tribal-marks-across-africa
              http://allafrica.com/stories/201103070786.html
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11 comments:

  1. very very interesting and educational. i was told that body markings, tats was not christian or in the bible but now i see it is our culture before we were taken from africas to become slaves. awesome pictures. will share this page with friends on facebook who are afrocentric and love our history

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  2. This is a treasure trove of images!

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  3. My beautiful africa, mother of a continent and all beautiful people and colorful ... despite all the difficulties ... The world look more for AFRICA.

    BRAZILIAN CULTURE AND ART.

    http://www.aartedenewtonavelino.com

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  4. Nice blog. But your reference to Seal at the beginning was misleading; sometimes, a little bit of deep digging will help clear up any misrepresentations. Contrary to popular belief, the scars were caused by a disease called Lupus which Seal suffered from when he was a child. The particular strain from which Seal suffers causes blistering especially around the facial area, which when ruptured cause deep scarring.
    They are not the result of ritual scarification.

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    Replies
    1. Michael Jackson - Vitiligo
      Seal - Lupus

      In Lagos Island, Yorubas of Afro-Brazilian returnee descent, call themselves 'Brazilians'. So that explains Seal's 'Brazilian' parentage.

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  5. Oh my god! it looks very painfull and it must be... most of them have been marken at very young age.... how can people do something like this to their children?

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  6. almost every tribe in Africa has its own tribal marks, but no to body tatoos, a characteristic of the westerners

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  7. wow.. I was so clueless about this situation until I saw someone face with all these weird marks, then I decided to find out more about the look. Now, I feel so bad for all these beautiful children of Africa that had to go trough this for one reason or another.May God Bless everyone of them!

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  8. Good health to you,

    My name is Tai Ojo of Gabman Photography, please explain to us why you have used copyright image (Yoruba facial mark (Yoruba facial mark (it is known as yensuwa kam "crying mark" in Ghana) without copy right, we would also like to know where you took the image from, you are violating copyright law, please remove this image from your blog, comply with bill of exchange law by paying a fee for the use of this image or you will be met with the full length of the law.

    We await you response.

    Gabmanphotos@hotmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. Just roots,the power of creation.In medieval they used to amutate the organs,because they weren't worth the healing.Plastic surgery started in France and W.Germany after they met polish Huzars in fight!

    ReplyDelete